Dr. Daniel Hinckley
Insight into causes and treatments
• How does the Temporo-Mandibular Joint work?
• What causes TMJ pain?
• How is TMJ pain treated?
• and more…
Open your jaw all the way and shut it. This
simple movement would not be possible without the Temporo-Mandibular
Joint (TMJ). It connects the temporal bone (the bone that forms the side
of the skull) and the mandible (the lower jaw). Even though it is only a
small disc of cartilage, it separates the bones so that the mandible
may slide easily whenever you talk, swallow, chew, kiss, etc. Therefore,
damage to this complex, triangular structure in front of your ear, can
cause considerable discomfort.
Where is the Temporo-Mandibular Joint?
You can locate this joint by putting your finger on the triangular structure in front of your ear. Then move your finger just slightly forward and press firmly while you open your jaw all the way and close it. You can also feel the joint motion in your ear canal.
How does the TMJ work?
Therefore, the forces of chewing can be distributed over a wider surface in the joint space and minimize the risk of injury. In addition, several muscles contribute to opening and closing the jaw and aid in the function of the TMJ.
What causes TMJ pain?
In most patients, pain associated with the TMJ
is a result of displacement of the cartilage disc that causes pressure
and stretching of the associated sensory nerves. The popping or clicking
occurs when the disk snaps into place when the jaw moves. In addition,
the chewing muscles may spasm, not function efficiently, and cause pain
What are the symptoms?
• Major and minor trauma to the jaw
• Teeth grinding
• Excessive gum chewing
• Stress and other psychological factors
• Improper bite or malpositioned jaws
• Ear pain
• Sore jaw muscles
• Temple/cheek pain
• Jaw popping/clicking
• Locking of the jaw
• Difficulty in opening the mouth fully
• Frequent head/neck aches
The pain may be sharp and searing, occurring each time you swallow,
yawn, talk, or chew, or it may be dull and constant. It hurts over the
joint, immediately in front of the ear, but pain can also radiate
elsewhere. It often causes spasms in the adjacent muscles that are
attached to the bones of the skull, face, and jaws. Then pain can be
felt at the side of the head (the temple), the cheek, the lower jaw, and
A very common focus of pain is in the ear. Many patients come to the ear specialist quite convinced their pain is from an ear infection. When the earache is not associated with a hearing loss and the eardrum looks normal, the doctor will consider the possibility that the pain comes from TMJ.
There are a few other symptoms besides pain that TMJ can cause. It can make popping, clicking, or grinding sounds when the jaws are opened wide. Or the jaw locks wide open (dislocated). At the other extreme, TMJ can prevent the jaws from opening fully. Some people get ringing in their ears from TMJ.
How is TMJ pain treated?
• Rest the muscles and joints by eating soft foods.
• Do not chew gum.
• Avoid clenching or tensing.
• Relax muscles with moist heat (1/2 hour at least twice daily).
In cases of joint injury, apply ice packs soon
after the injury to reduce swelling. Relaxation techniques and stress
reduction, patient education, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,
muscle relaxants, or other medications may also offer relief.
Other treatments for advanced cases may include fabrication of an occlusal splint to prevent wear and tear on the joint, improving the alignment of the upper and lower teeth, and surgery. After diagnosis, your otolaryngologist may suggest further consultation with your dentist and oral surgeon to facilitate effective management of TMJ pain.
*information from www.entnet.org